The term X-ray Scattering encompasses a number of techniques used to characterize materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has traditionally been applied to well-ordered crystalline materials to determine crystal structures, identify phase composition, measure stress, preferred orientation and crystallinity, but the field also encompasses the characterization of non- or semi-crystalline materials via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Scattering experiments at very small angles can study electron density structures in materials on size scales greater than the electron density contrast due to atomic ordering observed in diffraction from crystalline materials and can provide information on size, shape, and distribution of electron density contrasted domains in polymers, dilute suspensions, gels, emulsions and more. Diffuse scattering to wide angles (WAXS) can study atomic structure in non-crystalline materials.
MCL maintains multiple X-Ray Diffractometers.
Sample requirements vary widely with instrument and the analysis required. Please contact a technical staff member to discuss your needs.
All users of analytical x-ray systems at Penn State are required to complete x-ray safety training through Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) prior to receiving instrument training. For more information on these requirements, see the EHS web site. Equipment training is provided at the hourly rate for equipment and analyst. Group training is available and can reduce cost per student significantly. Visit this webpage for training details or contact a technical staff member for more information.
|PANalytical XPert Pro MPD||Cu||theta-theta||
|line||Reflection||PIXcel 1D||powder/bulk/thin film|
|PANalytical Empryean||Cu, Mo||theta-theta||para-focusing||line||Reflection||PIXcel 3D||powder/bulk|
|PANalytical X'Pert3 MRD||Cu, Cr||4-circle||
PIXcel 3D and
|Malvern Panalytical Empyrean (3rd gen.)||Cu, Mo, Co, Ag||3-axis cradle||
|line/point||Reflection or Transmission||GaliPIX and Xcelerator||powder/bulk/metals/polymers|
|XENOCS Xeuss 2.0 SAXS/WAXS||Cu||none||collimation||
scatterless slits -
|Transmission and GIXRD||Dectris Pilatus 200K||polymers, nanoparticles, nanocomposites, etc.|
|Multiwire Laue||white||3-axis||collimation||point||Back-reflection||Multiwire area||single crystal|
The Xenocs Xeuss 2.0 offers a number of applications including: grazing incidence (GISAXS/GIWAXS), 2D SAXS/WAXS measurements and simultaneous SAXS/WAXS measurements during dynamic studies, using shear or temperature cells. Research areas of particular interest for this tool include structural characterization of of organo-photovoltaic thin films, polymer crystallization, block copolymer composites, ionic and conjugated polymers, rheo-SAXS, bio-synthetic hybrid materials and ultimately biological samples in solutions.
Solid state, “radiation hard” detector allows measurement of the direct beam through a semi-transparent foil for absoute intensity corrections.
For Xeuss users - example description of data collection parameters: "The wide angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed by using an in-house SAXS/WAXS laboratory system (Xeuss 2.0 HR, Xenocs, France) equipped with a microfocus sealed tube (copper) with X-ray wavelength of 1.54 Å (50 kV, 0.6 mA) and a Pilatus3 R200K detector with a sample to detector distance of approximately 0.165 m. The scattering experiments were collected under vacuum at room temperature, and integrated over a tilted circle profile to convert 2D images into one-dimensional scattering patterns of scattering intensity I(q) (in arbitrary units) versus degrees 2theta."