Rare earth elements are used in the manufacture of lighter and stronger materials for energy applications such as gas turbines, wind and power systems, defense applications, electronics, and the medical industry. Currently China dominates the global supply of these minerals and obtaining these minerals from primary domestic mineral deposits is crucial for national security.  Secondary sources, including byproducts of coal mining and other energy-based waste products, are equally vital to developing a reliable supply chain. Recycling and reuse of lithium-ion and other batteries along with E-waste are essential for a successful transition to a sustainable energy future. This presentation will discuss recent developments and ongoing efforts at Penn State in multi-metal extraction from secondary sources and highlight global/regional opportunities and challenges.   |  Center for Critical Minerals