Nanoscale lithography, the ability to pattern 700 billion transistors on 300 mm wafers at sub-10 nm features with no defects is a marvel of modern engineering This high density of transistors is central to the digital revolution that allows us to exchange information within the blink of an eye. Our lab leverages lithographic pattering, namely directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers, to fabricate extended surface electrocatalyst and nanostructure polymer electrolytes for hydrogen fuel cells and water electrolyzers – technologies that are central to decarbonizing the global economy. DSA has revealed how the mesostructure of electrochemical materials govern ion transport, ion activity, and electrochemical reactivity.