Dr. William Regli
Deputy Director, Defense Sciences Office, DARPA
The revolution underway in materials science is begetting the need for a revolution in design. Current approaches and tools are based on methodologies going back centuries. We will discuss the need (and opportunities) for a paradigm shift in design and manufacturing as the result of the relentless progress of computing and growth in data.
Distribution Statement “A” (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited)
Dr. William Regli joined DARPA as the Deputy Director of the Defense Sciences Office in September 2014. Dr. Regli is a computer scientist with a passion for addressing interdisciplinary and use-inspired problems using knowledge representation, physics-based modeling, and other computational techniques. He has published more than 250 technical articles, including those in leading venues for research in computer graphics, artificial intelligence, robotics, wireless networking, tissue engineering, and engineering design and manufacturing. His research has spawned two start-up technology companies (one focused on mobile communications for public safety, the other on information management in edge networks) and resulted in five U.S. patents. Dr. Regli's recent activities have focused on deploying cyber-infrastructure systems to capture and curate engineering and science data, and ensure the long-term sustainability of data. His current interests include computational tools to exploit the properties of advanced materials, additive manufacturing systems and enabling new paradigms for design and production.
Dr. Regli holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Computer Science from the University of Maryland at College Park and Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from Saint Joseph's University. He has been on the faculty of Drexel University since 1997, most recently as Professor of Computer and Information Science and Senior Associate Dean for Research and Scholarly Activities for the College of Computing and Informatics. His Federal service includes a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and an ongoing role as Scientific Adviser to the Defense Programs Office of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration in the areas of information technology and advanced manufacturing.
He is an elected senior member of the Association of Computing Machinery, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.
Director, Materials Research Institute
MRI Director's view of materials advances over the next 10 years
Throughout history, materials have enabled new engineering solutions to improve the quality of human life. There is a continued drive to search for new materials and new solutions to extend performance, reduce costs, and enhance functionality and sustainability in all applications. So materials scientists and engineers have to constantly drive these changes to create new materials and fabrication processes for the next generation of products. New material discoveries come from multiple sources, ranging from creative application of phenomenological chemical/physical principles, computational design, combinatorial approaches, metastable synthesis, composites, nanoscience and serendipity coupled with scientific curiosity. In today’s environment, this requires advanced characterization and processing tools at all length scales to move technology forward. Penn State has both outstanding core user facilities and individual faculty labs. Our purpose is to drive innovation, understanding and transition to impact science, industry and society. Our education mission is as strong as our research mission and drives the training of materials scientists with a globalized viewpoint that considers multiple perspectives. This talk outlines new synthesis approaches that enable polymer and ceramic technology integration in a manner previously unrealized. We will highlight a number of opportunities at the convergence of materials and life sciences and point to the importance of coupling synthesis and characterization to modeling to enable accelerated integration of materials and devices into manufacturing. In addition to the efforts in basic science, and in industrial impact, MRI’s new direction and efforts in humanitarian material science will be featured.
Clive A. Randall is a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. He was Director for the Center for Dielectric Studies between 1997 and 2013, and recently formed a new Center as Co-Director, the Center for Dielectrics and Piezoelectrics. Prof. Randall received a B.Sc. with Honors in Physics in 1983 from the University of East Anglia, and a Ph.D. in Experimental Physics from the University of Essex in 1987, both in the United Kingdom. He has authored/co-authored over 330 technical papers, with over 10,000 citations and an h-factor of 52. He also holds 13 patents (with 3 pending) in the field of electroceramics. Prof. Randall’s research interests are in the area of discovery and compositional design of functional materials for electrical energy transduction and storage, defect chemistry and crystal chemistry and their impact on phase transition behavior, electromechanical devices based upon electrostriction and piezoelectrics, supercapacitors, thermoelectrics, and microwave materials. He has used a variety of different processing and characterization methods that have impacted manufacturing and development processes for materials, particularly in the capacitor industry. His research group has been supported from a number of different sources, including the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, the U.S.-Israel Binational Scientific Foundation, NASA, and substantial funding from the private sector. Prof. Randall was honored with the American Ceramic Society Fulrath Award in 2002; the Wilson Research Award from the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Penn State University, in 2003; he spent one year (2004–2005) as a Visiting Fellow of Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge, U.K.; he was elected Fellow of the American Ceramic Society in 2005 and Academician of the World Academy of Ceramics in 2006; in 2007, he and his colleagues received the R&D 100 Award for their Integrated Fiber Alignment Package (IFAP); he received the Spriggs Phase Equilibria Award in 2008; in 2009, he received the University Scholar Award (Engineering) from Penn State University; he received the Japanese FMA International Award; he gave the Friedberg Lecture at the American Ceramic Society, both in 2011; in 2013, he received, along with his student, the Edward C. Henry Best Paper of the Year from the American Ceramics Society Electronics Division; and he received the IEEE UFFC-S Ferroelectrics Recognition Award (2014). He is a member of American Ceramic Society, IEEE and the IEEE Ferroelectrics Committee, Materials Research Society, and the Pennsylvania Ceramics Association.
Adri van Duin, Penn State
How computational modeling will change the way that we study materials in the future
The Materials Computation Center - part of the Three Lab, One Solution concept. Adri van Duin - Director, MCC and professor in Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering & Chemical Engineering The Material Computation Center (MCC) - aims to provide the third pillar of the 'Three Labs - One Solution' MRI concept, by facilitating connections between the Nanofab, the Material Characterization Lab and the Penn State simulation community. MCC currently consists of 18 faculty, spread through 3 colleges covering a wide range of simulation environments - all the way from atomistic-scale to continuum and covering a comprehensive set of materials. In this presentation I will present the updated MCC-website - including querie forms allowing Penn State experimental faculty to conveniently connect with MCC-faculty. I will also present potential future directions for MCC. Also, I will give examples of past and ongoing collaborations between computational and experimental groups within and outside MRI that demonstrate the value of collaboration between simulation and experiment.
Adri van Duin is professor of mechanical and nuclear engineering & chemical engineering at Penn State. He is director of the Materials Computation Center (MCC) and the inventor and main developer of the ReaxFF reactive force field method, a computation code distributed to over 500 university and industrial research groups worldwide. van Duin was educated at the University of Amsterdam (Chem. 1991) and Delft University of Technology (Ph.D. 1997). In 2015 he was awarded the Kenneth Kuan-Yun Kuo Early Career Professorship. He is the author or coauthor of over 250 papers in peer-reviewed journals.
Venkat Gopalan, Penn State
Designing multifunctionality into complex oxides
Complex oxides are one of the richest class of materials in terms of the range of phenomena they exhibit and their applications. These include all the way from insulators, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, semiconductors, magnetism, metallicity, and correlated electronic phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions and superconductivity. This talk will present overview some of these phenomena, as well as discuss how multiple functionalities can me designed to coexist in one material.
Dr. Gopalan received his B.Tech. in Metallurgical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, in 1989, and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering from Cornell University in 1995. He was a postdoctoral scholar in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the Carnegie Mellon University from 1995-1996, and was subsequently awarded a director funded postdoctoral fellowship at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he performed research on ferroelectrics and electro-optics till 1998.
He joined Pennsylvania State University as an assistant professor in December 1998, and became a full professor in 2007. He has been awarded the National Science Foundation CAREER award (2000), Robert R. Coble Award from the American ceramics Society (2002), Corning Faculty fellowship in Ceramic Sciences (2004), National Research Council Faculty Fellowship (2004), Wilson award for excellence in research (2005), Eshbach Faculty Fellow at the Northwestern University (2007), Richard M. Fulrath award from the American ceramics Society (2009), Faculty Scholar Medal from Penn State (2012).
He is a group leader in the NSF-MRSEC Center for Nanoscale Science, has served on the editorial board of the Annual Reviews of Materials research since 2004. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society since 2012. Gopalan has published over 200 papers, and has written five book chapters on ferroelectric complex oxides, nonlinear optics, optical metamaterials, and scanning probe microscopy.
Joan Redwing, Assoc. Director, Materials Research Institute
Advances enabled by CVD/ALD fabrication of 2D materials
Graphene and layered semiconductors are two-dimensional (2D) materials of atomic-level thickness that exhibit strikingly different properties than their bulk counterparts. These materials are expected to provide revolutionary advances in applications ranging from displays to electronics to energy conversion and sensing. A particularly intriguing class of 2D materials are the layered chalcogenides which includes materials such as bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) and transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 and WSe2. The crystal structure of the layered chalcogenides consists of covalently bonded sheets of atoms that are held together via weak electrostatic van der Waals bonds. This structure enables the removal of single layer or few layer films from bulk crystals via mechanical or chemical exfoliation processes. For device technology, however, there is a need to develop processes to reproducibly form large area 2D films of single layer or few layer thickness on process compatible substrates such as silicon or sapphire. Our studies have focused on the development of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for layered chalcogenides. The MOCVD process uses the thermal decomposition and reaction of chemical precursors to form films with well controlled properties. This talk will discuss some of the unique challenges in the deposition of layered chalcogenide films by MOCVD and will highlight recent advances in facilities and process capabilities for 2D materials synthesis within the Center for 2D and Layered Materials at Penn State.
Joan M. Redwing received her B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh and her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. After receiving her Ph.D., she was employed as a research engineer at Advanced Technology Materials, Inc. where she worked on the development of group III-nitride materials and devices. Dr. Redwing joined the faculty of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Penn State University in 2000. She holds appointments in the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Department of Chemical Engineering at Penn State and is a member of the Materials Research Institute. Dr. Redwing’s research interests are in the general area of electronic materials synthesis and characterization with a specific emphasis on semiconductor thin film, nanowire and 2D materials fabrication by chemical vapor deposition. She currently serves as secretary of the American Association for Crystal Growth and is an associate editor for the Journal of Crystal Growth and the Journal of Materials Research. She is a co-author on over 250 publications in refereed journals and holds 8 U.S. patents.
Ayusman Sen, Penn State
Fantastic Voyage: Designing Self-powered Nanobots
Self-powered nano and microscale moving systems are currently the subject of intense interest due in part to their potential applications in nanomachinery, nanoscale assembly, robotics, fluidics, and chemical/biochemical sensing. We will demonstrate that one can build autonomous nanomotors “from scratch” that mimic biological motors by using catalytic reactions to create forces based on chemical gradients. These motors are autonomous in that they do not require external electric, magnetic, or optical fields as energy sources. Instead, the input energy is supplied locally and chemically. These "bots" can be directed by information in the form of chemical and light gradients. Further, we have developed systems in which chemical secretions from the translating nano/micromotors initiate long-range, collective interactions among themselves. This behavior is reminiscent of quorum sensing organisms that swarm in response to a minimum threshold concentration of a signaling chemical. In addition, an object that moves by generating a continuous surface force in a fluid can, in principle, be used to pump the fluid by the same catalytic mechanism. Thus, by immobilizing the nano/micromotors, we have developed nano/microfluidic pumps that transduce energy catalytically. These non-mechanical pumps provide precise control over flow rate without the aid of an external power source and are capable of turning on in response to specific analytes in solution.
Ayusman Sen received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago and was a postdoctoral fellow at the California Institute of Technology. He is Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at the Pennsylvania State University. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His research interests encompass catalysis, organometallic and polymer chemistry, and nanotechnology. He is the author of approximately 350 scientific publications and holds 24 patents. http://research.chem.psu.edu/axsgroup/
Qing Wang, Penn State
High Temperature Dielectric Polymers
Polymer dielectrics are materials of choice for power electronics, power conditioning, and pulsed power applications. However, they are generally limited to relatively low working temperatures, and fail to meet ever-rising demand for electricity under often-extreme conditions in applications such as electric vehicles, aerospace, and downhole energy exploration. This talk will present our latest efforts to develop polymers and polymer nanocomposites as high-temperature dielectrics. The cross-linked polymer nanocomposites exhibit remarkable dielectric stability over a broad range of temperature and frequency and outstanding capacitive energy storage capabilities up to 250 oC, significantly outperforming the state-of-the-art dielectric polymers. The superior performance of the polymer nanocomposites stems from pronounced reduction in conduction loss and marked enhancement in thermal conductivity, which improves heat dissipation as compared to pristine polymers that are inherently susceptible to thermal runaway. These excellent performances coupled with photo-patternablility and mechanical flexibility enable broader applications of organic materials in high-temperature electronics and energy storage devices.
Dr. Qing Wang received his B.S. in Materials Science and Engineering from East China University of Science and Technology (Shanghai, China), M.S. in Chemistry from Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) and Ph.D. in Chemistry from The University of Chicago. He was a postdoctoral associate in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at Cornell University from 2000 – 2002, and joined the Pennsylvania State University in 2002. He received the Rustum and Della Roy Innovation in Materials Research Award in 2007, NSF CAREER Award in 2006, and Virginia S. and Philip L. Walker Faculty Fellow in 2004. His current research interests are the development of multifunctional polymers and polymer nanocomposites for applications in energy storage and conversion.
Allison Beese, Penn State
Additive manufacturing of structural materials
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials has potential application in custom and complex shaped structural components that cannot be made through traditional casting or subtractive machining methods. In powder-based laser-based AM of metallic alloys, a high-power energy laser is used to melt powder feedstock, which fuses to the material below upon solidification, allowing for the fabrication of 3-dimensional components in a layer-by-layer fashion. Powder is delivered to the desired location either as a thin layer in powder bed fusion, or through nozzles directed at the melt pool in directed energy deposition. The thermal cycles introduced during AM affect the location-dependent microstructure of the final part, resulting in microstructures and mechanical properties of components that differ from their wrought or cast counterparts. Therefore, in order to use AM for fabrication of structural components, an understanding of the processing, microstructure, mechanical property relationships is required. This talk will highlight our work on investigating these relationships for two alloy systems: Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel 304L.
Allison Beese received her B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Penn State University. Following her undergraduate studies, she was employed at Lockheed Martin’s Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, where she designed large scale experiments and performed failure analysis of nuclear power plant components. She then entered graduate school at MIT, where she conducted research in Professor Tomasz Wierzbicki’s Impact and Crashworthiness Laboratory, and was awarded a Department of Defense National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. She earned her M.S. and her Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering with a minor in Biomechanics at MIT.
Her doctoral research involved experimental characterization and modeling of the large deformation behavior of anisotropic steel sheets undergoing strain-induced phase transformation. Dr. Beese spent two years as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor Horacio Espinosa’s Micro and Nanomechanics Laboratory at Northwestern University, where she experimentally studied fabrication-structure-property relationships of both carbon based nanomaterials, using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based testing techniques in situ a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and macroscopic materials derived from nanoscale carbon constituents.
Gregory Dillon, assoc. director technology transfer, Penn State Behrend
The future of polymers processing
Since the first development of synthetic polymers in the last century, plastics have become ubiquitous in modern society. Process technologies have evolved to be increasingly efficient in terms of viable production rates. Injection molding has been the 'work horse' technology and components and commodities of every imaginable description abound that are produced by variants of this process. While the great majority of polymer components are concentrated in the commodity sector and are accounted for by a handful of polymer systems, in recent years new materials technology and process innovations have led to a broadening of the viable application spectrum for plastics. This presentation considers some of these recent innovations and assesses emerging trends to provide an analysis of possible future directions. Process developments including conformal cooling, micro molding, microcellular foaming and gas assist technology will be evaluated. Recent developments in materials architecture characterization at Penn State will be summarized to point to the means by which more demanding application requirements can be met with conventional process technology. Trends in medical plastics will also be considered, as will the role of additive manufacturing in impending polymer technology developments.
Dr. Greg Dillon is Associate Director for Research and Technology Transfer and Associate Professor of Engineering in the School of Engineering at Penn State Erie, The Behrend College. He received his Ph.D. and B.S. [summa cum laude] in Materials Engineering in 1989 and 1986 respectively from the University of Limerick - Ireland. Dr. Dillon worked most recently at the Applied Research Lab at The Pennsylvania State University in State College, PA where he was Deputy Head of the Composite Materials Division beginning in 2000. Prior to joining Penn State he was Principal Engineer in Advanced Development at Northrop Grumman in Bethpage NY; Senior Development Engineer at Lawrie Technology, Inc in Girard, PA; and Assistant Director of the Composites Manufacturing Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, MA.
Dr. Dillon was selected as Associate Director for Research and Technology Transfer in December 2012 and brings years of research activity, including patents, in the composites engineering area. He is author of over 40 publications and 8 eight patents.
Dr. Dillon is a member of the Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering (SAMPE) and the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).