Four-Probe Resistivity and Hall Voltage Measurements

Course Description

This workshop will give a Parametric Analyzer Overview with a focus on making bulk and surface resistivity measurements.  A mixture of resistivity measurement theory and live demonstrations will cover both the Analyzer operation and measurement techniques.  In addition, measurement challenges such as contact resistance, error sources, and low (< 100Ω) and high (10MΩ to TΩ) resistance samples will be addressed. The workshop will conclude with an open Q and A session to address individual concerns.

Course Pre-requisite

Active PSU RIMS Account and Budget


MCS Building, Room N-201


For further information contact 814-865-2328

Date & Time

March 21, 2018
9:30 Check-in
10:00 Start time


50.00 per person with RIMS account

Registration Deadline

March 15, 2018

Training Topics

10:00 am - 11:15 am
  • Parametric Analyzer Overview, hardware types: SMU, CVU, PMU (15 min)
  • Resistivity General intro - thin films, contact resistance, volume/bulk resistivity vs. surface (15 min)
  • Features of SMUs to know about when using them for Resistivity measurements (15 min)
  • Hardware config: How many SMUs do I need? (5 min)
  • Hardware config: can I just use fewer SMU and some switching? (10 min)
  • Four Point Probe Resistivity - methods, error sources, countermeasures to the errors (15 min)
11:15 am Break
  • Live Demo with simulated test structures. (30 min)
  • Van der Pauw and Hall Effect test structures - methods, error sources, countermeasures (30 min)
  • How the 4200 software combines the multiple measurements into summary results (10 min)
  • Live Demo with simulated test structures. (30 min)
1:10 pm Lunch
2:00 pm - 2:20 pm

Wrap up and summary on:

  • Considerations for low ohms (< 100Ω) (5 min)
  • Considerations for mid-range ohms (100Ω to 10MΩ (5 min)
  • Considerations for high and ultra-high ohms (10MΩ to TΩ) (10 min)
2:20 pm General Q & A