This technique is based on the Photoelectric Effect. When a material is irradiated with x-rays, photoelectrons are subsequently ejected from the surface. The kinetic energy of an emitted photoelectron is equal to the difference between the photon energy, and the binding energy of the electron (K.E. = hν - B.E.). The technique is inherently surface sensitive because the majority of the measured photoelectrons originate in the outer 5-10 nm of the sample surface. The spectra contain information about the elemental composition, concentrations and chemical environments (i.e. oxidation states) of surface and near surface atoms. Greater depths (up to a few microns) can be probed by coupling the technique with ion milling. Quantitative chemical state imaging is possible with some samples. The analyses are non-destructive for many, but not all materials.
Samples must be ultra-high vacuum compatible. Contact Vince to discuss this requirement. Elements of interest must be at a concentration of approximately 0.1-1 atomic percent or greater with the information depth. Sample thickness is limited to about 13 mm or less.
Physical Electronics VersaProbe II
Kratos Analytical Axis Ultra*
* The Kratos Ultra XPS was purchased with the generous support of the National Science Foundation (DMR #0114104)