Thermo Gravimetric Analysis

Thermogravimetric Analysis measure changes in weight of a sample with increasing temperature. Measurements are used primarily to determine the composition of materials and to predict their thermal and oxidative stability. Also the technique is used to estimate the lifetime of a product, decomposition kinetics, moisture/volatile content, melting point, glass transition, heat capacity, crystallinity and purity. When coupled to mass spectrometry, the species that evolve as a result of a temperature increase, are conducted to a mass spectrometer, and its identity can be identify, giving information about reactions in real time. The resolution of the technique is affected by the heating rate, sample size and purge gas composition.

Typical Applications

Pharmaceuticals, Ceramics, Inorganics, Fuels, Polymers, Glass, Adhesives, paints, Resins, Lubricants, Catalysts

Sample Requirements

  • Optimal sample size is 10-50 mg
  • Typical heating rates 10-20°C per minute
  • Temperature range- room temperature to 1000°C

Equipment

TGA Q50 with a Pfeiffer Vacuum Mass Spectrometer

Atmospheres available are He and Ar

TGA 2050

Atmospheres available are N2, Ar, Air

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Description

DSC measures temperatures and heat flows associated with thermal transitions in a material. Properties measured include glass transitions, “cold” crystallization, phase changes, melting, crystallization, product stability, cure/cure kinetics, and oxidative stability.

Applications

Pharmaceuticals, Ceramics, Inorganics, Fuels, Polymers, Glass, Adhesives, paints, Resins, Lubricants, Catalysts

Equipment

Q2000 MDSC® (Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimeter)

Temperature Range: Ambient to 725°C
With Cooling Accessories: -90 to 550°C
Temperature Accuracy: +/- 0.1°C
Temperature Precision: +/- 0.01°C
Calorimetric Reproducibility (indium metal): +/- 0.05%
Calorimetric Precision (indium metal): +/- 0.05%
Dynamic Measurement Range: >+/- 500 mW
Baseline Curvature: (Tzero; -50 to 300 ̊C) 10 μW
Baseline Reproducibility with Tzero: +/- 10 μW
Sensitivity: 0.2 μW

Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (SDT)

Description

Provides a true simultaneous measurement of heat flow (DSC) and weight change (TGA) on the same sample from ambient to 1,500oC. DSC noise is <4 microwatts and the TGA balance sensitivity is 0.1 microgram. A heat flux DSC design with separate sample and reference pans is used, and is calibrated for heat flow measurements using sapphire. This system features automated furnace movement and a horizontal purge gas system with digital mass flow controllers and programmable gas switching capability. A separate tube permits introduction of reactive gases into the sample chamber.

Applications

Pharmaceuticals, Ceramics, Inorganics, Fuels, Polymers, Glass, Adhesives, paints, Resins, Lubricants, Catalysts

Equipment

Q600 SDT

Sample Capacity: 200 mg (350 mg including sample holder)
Balance Sensitivity: 0.1 μg
Temperature Range: Ambient to 1500°C
Heating Rate Ambient to 1000°C: 0.1 to 100°C/min
Heating Rate Ambient to 1500°C: 0.1 to 25°C/min
DTA Sensitivity: 0.001°C
Calorimetric Accuracy/Precision: ± 2% (based on metal standards)
Sample Pans: Platinum: 40 μL, 110 μL and Alumina: 40 μL, 90 μL