Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Impedance spectroscopy is a linear technique implemented to study the electrical properties of dielectric and semi-conductive materials by applying an AC electric field (stimulus) and measuring the electrical current through the sample (response) over a range of frequencies and temperatures. Impedance spectroscopy informs on the polarizations contributing to the dielectric behavior of materials as well as dielectric relaxation (Δε), thermal transitions (Tg), ferroelectric transitions (Tc), charge distribution in materials (bulk, depleted layers, grain boundaries, etc.).

Instrumentation and Specifications

Some system configurations allow multiple samples with automated switching. Mobile Impedance analyzers and a VNA are available to connect to many systems to extend temperature ranges: -150 to 700 °C

Extended capabilities often exist and should be discussed with staff.

Modulab XM

  • Frequency: <1mHz to 1MHz
  • ≤ 5.6V AC RMS
  • ≤ ±8V DC Bias
  • Automated temperature sweeps
  • Ideal for small capacitances at low frequency


Agilent E4980A

  • Frequency: 20Hz - 2MHz
  • ≤ 20V AC RMS
  • ≤ ±40V DC Bias


Agilent 4294A

  • Frequency: 100Hz to 50MHz
  • ≤ 20V AC RMS
  • ≤ ±40V DC Bias


FormFactor 11000B

  • 8” Triaxial chuck
  • Light shielded enclosure
  • temperature range: -60 to 300°C
  • automated temperature sweeping


“Measurement of Dielectric Material Properties Application Note.” (2012)
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy, F.Kremer, A. Schönhals (eds.) (2003)