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Hybrid MBE (MBE 1)

The 2DCC Hybrid Chalcogenide Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) system is an MBE system dedicated to the growth of chalcogenide thin films. The hybrid MBE approach in particular enables the synthesis of chalcogenide materials containing refractory metallic components through the addition of a gas injector system allowing to supply these elements in a molecular form, giving access to a different growth kinetics, potentially favorable for refractory transition metal elements with low vapor pressures. To guarantee the highest degree of control down to a single layer and excellent reproducibility the chalcogenide MBE reactor is equipped with a series of state of the art in-situ monitoring capabilities, such as reflection high energy electron diffraction, ion gauge beam flux monitor, residual gas analyzer, heated quartz crystal monitor, and a spectroscopic ellipsometer. The hybrid chalcogenide MBE can handle wafers up to 3 inches. The chalcogenide MBE reactor is connected via a UHV transfer line with a oxide MBE reactor and a sputter deposition system. The in-vacuo transfer between the components of the cluster enables the integration of chemically dissimilar materials, such as growth of chalcogenide films on oxide thin films, as well as capping chalcogenide thin films using sputter deposition tool or integrate top electrodes via shadow mask onto the film without breaking vacuum to minimize potential contamination of film surfaces. In-vacuo sample exchange routine between the hybrid chalcogenide MBE and the 2DCC MIP thin film characterization cluster located  in Osmond Lab at the Pennsylvania State University with surface sensitive characterization techniques, such as angle resolved photoelectron emission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and transport measurements


  • Up to 3” diameter substrates, adapter for (10x10)mm substrates, adapter for samples on Omicron T flag style holders
  • Ultra-high vacuum shuttle for post growth characterization with up to 3 flag style holder sample storage capacity, base pressure 5×10-10 Torr, equipped with a NexTorr pump keeping this vacuum for weeks without power supply
  • Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) system 15kV, with RHEED analysis software kSA 400 version 5.50
  • Spectroscopic ellipsometer, spectral range of 210-1690nm
  • Residual gas analyzer for real-time background gas analysis
  • Fully automated ion gauge beam flux monitor
  • Fully automated heated quartz crystal monitor (room temperature to 500ºC)
  • Pyrometer for remote sample temperature measurements (in conjunction with in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometer)
  • Chalcogenide reactor base pressure of 1×10-10 Torr
  • Radio frequency plasma source to be used for oxygen and nitrogen
  • 7 effusion cells (3 low temperature cells, 2 high temperature cells, 2 dual temperature cells) plus port for one additional effusion cell
  • 4-pocket electron-beam evaporator source for high refractory metals with long throw distance to minimize thermal load on sample during e-beam operation
  • Adapter to a 4-line gas-injector inlet system of metal-organic precursors
  • All components are gate valve isolated to maximize uptime and allow maintenance during operation


  • Solid source: Se, In, Bi, Fe
  • Electron-beam source: Pt